Air Pollution Toronto Subway

An article, Metro Commuter Exposures to Particulate Air Pollution and PM2.5 Associated Elements in Three Canadian Cities: The Urban Transportation Exposure Study, K.V.Ryswyck et al, was published on April 25, 2017.  It reported that commuters on the Toronto Subway system were exposed to particulate matter levels comparable to the highly polluted Beijing air.

This particulate matter contained elevated levels of iron and manganese, both of which can cause lung irritation.  Although both iron and manganese are essential for normal human physiology, they can have deleterious effects when in excess.

Excessive iron accumulation (iron overload) can cause symptoms such as fatigue, joint pain, abdominal pain, liver disease, diabetes, irregular heart rhythm, and heart failure.

Manganese toxicity can result in tremors, difficulty walking, and facial muscle spasms; these can become permanent.

In addition to subway air pollution, individuals can be exposed to numerous toxic metals from a variety of sources.  Air, food, water, and cigarette smoking as well as other sources can all create an accumulation of toxic metals.  Their effects can run a gamut from memory loss and joint pain to cardiovascular disease and cancer.

The recognition of heavy metal toxicity and treatment is slowly gaining more recognition.  At you can order a kit to test urine toxic metal excretion.  If present, one can pursue removal of these metals and therefore increase one’s health.